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Geburtstag 4. Kultur und Kritik. Januar Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag Kolloquim Hermann Krings zum Geburtstag vom September , Ed. Zur Entwicklung der Interaktionskompetenz.

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Ein Brief an Kurt Sontheimer", Merkur no. Rede zum Geburtstag von Gershom Scholem," Merkur no. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, , pp Alexander Mitscherlich zum Juni Treue zum Staat und kritische Wissenschaft , Ed. Verhandlungen des Deutschen Soziologentages zu Bremen , Ed. Band 2: Zur Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Bellah, Paul Rabinow and William M. Soziale Interaktion und soziales Verstehen zusammen mit Wolfgang Edelstein. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, Reidel, , pp.

Adorno Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag, , pp. Die apologetischen Tendenzen in der deutschen Zeitgeschichts-schreibung", Die Zeit , Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, , pp. Einige Motive des Philosophierens im Nazi, sicher ein Nazi! Pehle Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag, , pp. Grenzen des vernunftrechtlichen Normativismus", Politische Vierteljahresschrift vol.

Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag, pp. Zur Diskussion eines Materialismus der Praxis , Ed. Gallen: Erker-Verlag, Texte und Kontexte. Gedenkreden, gehalten auf der Trauerfeier am Oktober ", Merkur vol. Grundprobleme der Demokratie , Ed. Was bedeutet 'Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit' heute?

Die Zeit Michael Theunissen zum Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, pp. Warum die Politik ohne Perspektiven ist. Thesen zu einer Diskussion", Frankfurter Rundschau Its Achievements and Its Limitations. Die Einbeziehung des Anderen. Here, too, the sources of right living and of consequent human happiness are found in man himself. But, instead of depending for the norms of life and conduct upon in- tellectual speculation, this new movement — agreeing in this respect with Pietism — laid the main stress upon feeling.

Rousseau's demand, "Back to nature, back to the stage of humanity in which an exuberant civilization had not de- stroyed the mystic unity of feeling and intellect,'' is a mani- festo against Enlightenment, which, while it made human life rigid and dutiful, had, by systematically making war upon all feeling, deprived it of many of its sweetest charms and rendered it poor and insipid. As is usually the case, the adherents of the new move- ment, particularly in the realms of art, went beyond all proper bounds in their zeal for deliverance from the irksome bonds, and Lessing, with great appreciation for Goethe's genius ap- parent also in his early works, felt no little inclination to enter the lists against him, as one of the foremost representatives of the new school, for his utter disregard of what had hitherto been regarded authoritative principles of art.

It to seems like the irony of fate that Orthodoxy should Orthodoxy.

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The orthodox theologians had by strictly log- ical processes constructed a system, which was by no means the work of bunglers and half-philosophers, as Lessing himself confessed. They had used the same reason from which the Enlighteners expected everything. Thej were no less firmly convinced of its infallibility, and no less successful in extirpating the more tender and delicate things of life. Religion had died under their hands, and theology flourished. The difference between the two movements of thought consisted in the assumptions from which they started, Orthodoxy basing its system upon certain dogmas externally delivered through the Reformation ; the Enlightenment on the other hand starting out with the assumption that, independent of all history, man has within him the data from which his intellect, by a formal logical process, can produce the only right system of philosophy, ethics, and reli- gion.

The immediate reaction against Orthodoxy was Pietism ; the immediate reaction against the Enlightenment was the Storm and Stress movement. Of course, it is not to be supposed that these various Blending of movements were kept clearly distinct, or that any the Move- large number of men clearly represented any one ard of them without being more or less affected by Gradations, the others also.

Thus a large number of theo- logians, known as Neo-theologians at the time, were more or less thoroughly in sympathy with the spirit of the En- lightenment.

Die Juden von Lessing Zusammenfassung

Some were faithful adherents of the Lutheran church, and only ventured to apply the apparatus of secular philology to the text of the Bible. And, accordingly, they applied their construction. Still others regarded not onl y the creeds as contradictory to reason, and as being invented by am- bitious priests, but also indulged in uncurbed criticism and denunciation of Revelation itself. Frederic II. What was more, theologians by profession began to make radical changes in the customary order of things.


Ernesti in Leipzig, hardly equalled by any of his contemporaries in thorough and comprehensive knowl- edge of classic ancient literature, and a theologian of no mean repute, advocated the application of the whole appa- ratus of philological Science to the books of the Bible. Michaelis, another theologian, was decidedly in sympathy with the Enlightenment, and made his doctrines popular through the attractive form of his lectures at the University of Gottingen.

Semler, agreeing with Spinoza in many of his views regarding the canonical books, whose inspiration he denied, published early in the seventies his Freie Unter- suchung des Kanons, and thereby almost induced Lessing, as early as , to issue under the title Eine noch freiere Untersuchung des Kanons Alien und Neuen Testamentes, a part of the Fragments, destined to play so conspicuous a part in Lessing's controversy afterward. Translated, London , Macmillan. Or YVilh. Windel- band, A History of Philosophy.

Translated, Macmillan. Dorner, History of Protestant Theology, Edinburgh, 1. To these influences in Lessing's life may be added his Lessin 's nome training and his early education. The in- fluence of such a home was carefully fostered at the Cloister School of St. Lessing himself characterizes the time in which he lived, and the position he took in regard to some of its movements, in his Bibliolatrie. He says: ' ' The better part of my life — whether for better or worse — belonged to a time when, in a sense, evidences for the truth of the Christian religion were the fashion.

No wonder that I, too, was occupied with this sort of reading and soon so engrossed that I found no peace until I had de- voured every novelty appearing in this field. Not long, and I sought no less eagerly every article written against religion, and gave it the same patient, impartial hearing which I had hitherto considered due only to writings in favor of religion.

I was tossed from one side to the other, wholly satisfied by neither. Both were. So far probably the experience of many is similar to mine. In other respects I am more likely to be alone The more conclusive evidence one side meant to adduce in favor of the Christian faith, the more doubtful I became.

Very early in life Lessing showed this interest in Religious religious matters.


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The Christian religion is not a bequest to be accepted in good faith from the parents. As a matter of fact, most people do receive it as a paternal inheritance ; and they plainly show in their conduct the genuineness of their confession. As long as I do not see observed one of the foremost injunctions of Christianity : to love our enemies, I cannot help doubting whether those are Christians indeed, who are Christians by profession. In the preface he says: "The first canto is particularly devoted to the doubts which, owing to the internal and external misery of man, can be raised concerning everything divine.

The poet expressed them in a soliloquy resulting from the quiet of a lonesome, troubled day. Do not imagine that he is losing sight of his subject when he seems to be straying in the labyrinths of intro- spection. He was Chanffein" unusua lty well versed in ancient and modern his Views, literatures, and had studied the Church Fathers with a thoroughness that challenged men professional in that particular field. But, an ardent friend of keen dialectics, he delighted, now and then, in speculations too venture- some for the average, and he took the part of the stigmat- ized sometimes to the extent of a fault.

This may in some measure account for the diversity of opinion regarding his religious views. But this diversity is largely due to the peculiar shape which Lessing's theological writings assumed owing to the time, and more to the circumstances attend- ing their composition. Fortunately his letters have been preserved to a large extent, and furnish an excellent com- mentary on many of his works. One of them to Moses Mendelssohn, Jan. He says: "I have been fearing, not only since yesterday, that in discarding certain prejudices I have cast away somewhat too much, which I shall have to recover.

This change in Lessing's views is one source of Diplomacy, confusion.

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Besides, he says many things not from conviction, but because his opponent cannot deny them, and must, admitting them, weaken his own posi- tion. With respect to him I have undoubtedly put myself in a position in which he cannot touch me as non-Christian. They made the fruit- less attempt of bringing into harmony with their rationalistic theories the Biblical views of man's relation to God, and of the nature of the world. Creative days interpreted as creative periods and similar well-meant untruths would be quite in keeping with their tendencies.

However little to Lessing's taste they might be, the views of the Orthodox were at least consistent. Orthodox theologians professedly did not try to adjust their doctrines to the canons of human reason. They were an open enemy, as Lessing says on one occasion, —you know where to find them.

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  • They had agreed to have a partition placed between philosophy and theology. The new school "tears down this partition, and under the pretense of making of us rational Christians, converts us into extremely unreasonable philosophers. He wishes with all his heart that every one might think rationally about religion, but prefers to pursue his own course in advancing rational religion. He has no desire whatever to maintain the old system, but neither is he anxious to do away with the old, as long as he sees no new one, worthy of the name, with.

    This was his position with respect to the Orthodox Doubtful! But when, in his controversies, and notably in a letter to the Duke of Brunswick, he boasts of being considered the stanchest defender of the Lutheran doctrine in Germany, one finds it difficult not to condemn such a statement. Tactics of this kind, even though employed as strategic measures called for by the needs of the literary campaign, are hard to justify, particularly when one remembers Lessing's repeated charges of duplicity and hypocrisy leveled against Goeze and other opponents.

    It is not necessary blindly to worship a great man in order to prove our admiration. It is quite plain, in spite of repeated statements to the contrary, that Lessing did not always contend solely in behalf of the principle at stake. He writes, June 9, , to Klotz, with whom he was afterward involved in a bitter literary controversy: "Do we write merely for the sake of establishing our position?